Introduction to TCM

Basics of TCM

  • Yin-Yang | Five Elements

Zang-Fu Theories

  • Zang Organs | Fu Organs

Classification of Antineoplastic Herbal Medicines

Characteristics of Herbal Medicines


  • By Auscultation & Olfaction
  • By Inspection


Theories of Channels (Meridians) and Collaterals

Reference: A Modern View of the Immune System

Differentiation of Syndromes

  • 8 Principles | 6 Channels 4 Stages
  • Syndromes of Zang-Fu Organs


  • Exogenous | Pestilential | Emotional
  • Pathogenic Factors

Materia Medica

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The information that is available at or through this site is not intended directly or by implication to either diagnose or treat any medical, emotional, or psychological condition or disorder. It is always recommended that consultation with local health care providers be obtained for specific health or medical concerns.

Pharmaceutical Name

Radix Achyranthis bidentatae; Radix Cyathulae

Botanical Name

1. Achyranthes bidentata Bl.; 2. Cyathula Officinalis Kuan

Common Name

Achyranthes root, Cyathula root

Source of Earliest Record

Shennong Bencao Jing

Part Used & Method for Pharmaceutical Preparations

The roots are dug in winter, dried and cut into slices.

Properties & Taste

Bitter, sour and neutral


Liver and kidney


1. To invigorate blood, release stagnation and promote menstruation; 2. To tonify liver and kidneys, and strengthen the tendons and muscles; 3. To promote urination and relieve urinary disorders; 4. To conduct blood flow downward

Indications & Combinations

1. Blood stagnation manifested as amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation and pains due to external injuries. Cyathula root (Niuxi) is used with Peach seed (Taoren), Safflower (Honghua), Chinese angelica root (Danggui) and Corydalis tuber (Yanhusuo). 2. Deficiency of the liver and kidneys manifested as soreness and weakness in the lumbar region and legs. Cyathula root (Niuxi) is used with Mulberry mistletoe (Sangjisheng), Eucommia bark (Duzhong) and Cibot rhizome (Gouji). 3. Extravasation of blood by heat manifested as vomiting with blood and epistaxis. Cyathula root (Niuxi) is used with Small thistle (Xiaoji), Biota tops (Cebaiye) and Imperata rhizome (Baimaogen). 4. Deficient yin with hyperactive yang leading to internal liver wind going upward manifested as headache, dizziness and vertigo. Cyathula root (Niuxi) is used with Red ochre (Daizheshi), Oyster shell (Muli) and Dragon's bone (Longgu) in the formula Zhengan Xifeng Tang. 5. Deficient yin and excessive fire manifested as ulceration of the mouth and gum swelling. Cyathula root (Niuxi) is used with Fresh rehmannia root (Shengdihuang) and Anemarrhena rhizome (Zhimu). 6. Urinary tract disorders manifested as painful urination, hematuria and dysuria. Cyathula root (Niuxi) is used with Ricepaper pith (Tongcao), Talc (Huashi) and Pink (Qumai) in the formula Niuxi Tang.


6-15 g

Cautions & Contraindications

This herb is contraindicated during pregnancy, or with profuse menstrual flow.

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With over 3000 years of experience, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has remain one of the many fascinating areas in ancient Chinese culture. First known to be documented in the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine, TCM is believed to have been practised in as early as 475 to 221 B.C. The field of working knowledge of TCM stretches from anything related to general healthcare practice to the philosophy of the mind, the logic of life, religion, and even to as far as cosmology and astronumerology. This is why in order to thoroughly understand the concepts behind TCM, one must be comprehensive in learning and embracing the Chinese culture as a whole.

Just as Douglas Hoff put it when he explained about accupuncture, "The systems of TCM uses the concepts of elements and meridians and are completely immersed in the Asian cosmology which takes shape through the religions." The meridian-brain mechanism, the fundamental working concept of acupuncture, in which the pain block from the message that the needle or burning cone of herbs gives to the point of stimulus, was only found centuries later by the West through science and technology.


Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA Thank you for visiting this TCM and acupuncture information website. If you have previously been to this website, you might have noticed that some of the pages on ancient historical ideas and holistic thinkings related to Chinese metaphysics are temporarily taken offline. This is because I have recently started to revamp the whole website so as to reflect a more current perspective on the interpretation of some of the fundamental concepts as well as to include some of the latest information in the area. But if you have just found this website for the very first time, I welcome you again and wish you could find what you require and, hopefully, you could also be benefitted from reading the articles I published on this website.

Please be patient and do come and check out this website frequently as it's being revamped.

Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA FRSPH

March 28, 2014.


This website is published, edited and designed by Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA and reflects only and only his personal views and opinions in his individual capacity. The information available at this website is not intended directly or by implication to either diagnose or treat any medical, emotional, or psychological condition or disorder. It is also not intended to create a physician-patient relationship between you and I or between you and The Commentary Limited. The information here is not a substitute for advice and treatment provided by your physician or by another healthcare professional. It is always recommended that consultation with local healthcare providers be obtained for any of your specific health or medical concerns. Furthermore, any products that can be purchased (yet you can see I don't have much to sell here) through advertisers' banners or through links to other websites are not either explicitly or implicitly given any warranty or endorsement by me, my colleagues, The Commentary Limited or any of its associated businesses.